Accordance Blog
Jul 22, 2013 David Lang

Using the MT-LXX Parallel, Part 2

In a previous post, I introduced you to the MT-LXX Parallel, a specialized Reference tool which offers a word-by-word comparison of the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint. In that post, I showed how to use the MERGE command to piggyback off a search of the tagged Hebrew Bible and tagged Greek Septuagint. This allowed us to search the Hebrew Bible for every occurrence of the lexical form tselem ("image")—no matter what its inflected form—and to see those results displayed in the MT-LXX parallel. We then searched the tagged Septuagint for every occurrence of the Greek lexical form eikon, and used the MERGE command with the MT-LXX parallel to find every place the LXX translates the Hebrew word tselem by some form of the word eikon. The result of that search looked like this:

MTLXXHowTo7

Now, to explore each of these results in context, I can click the Mark arrows at the bottom of the MT-LXX to jump from one hit to the next. But wouldn't it be quicker if we could just scan the relevant lines of the MT-LXX without having to wade past all the other words? Of course it would! Fortunately, this can easily be done by going to the Gear menu at the top left of the pane containing the MT-LXX and choosing Add Titles from the Show Text As… submenu.

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The result looks like this:

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Now, to understand what just happened, let's review what the Show Text As… submenu does. When you do a search in a Tool module, Accordance defaults to showing your search results in the context of the entire tool. This is the All Text setting in the Show Text As… submenu. You can, however, choose to show only those Articles or Paragraphs which contain a hit. In the MT-LXX, each verse is an article and each line is a paragraph, so choosing Articles would show each hit verse in its entirety, while choosing Paragraphs would show only the lines containing each hit word. Because showing only the hit paragraphs in a tool is often too concise, you also have the option to Add Titles. This shows the hit paragraphs as well as the titles of the articles in which they appear. In the MT-LXX, choosing Add Titles shows the hit paragraphs together with the verse references.

This more concise view makes it easy to see that there are a couple cases where tselem in the Hebrew column does not have a corresponding eikon in the Septuagint column (or vice versa). In Genesis 1:27, the first instance of tselem is left untranslated, and in Daniel 2:31, eikon is part of a phrase used to translate an entirely different Hebrew word. Why those two "false" hits?

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The reason we got those two cases where both words are not found on the same line is that Accordance defaults to looking for words within the same article rather than the same paragraph. For example, if you were to search the Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary for Moses <AND> Aaron, you might find a long article where Moses is in the first paragraph and Aaron is in the fifth paragraph. In a tool like MT-LXX where each verse is an article and each line is a paragraph, Accordance's default behavior will find any verse that has tselem in the Hebrew and eikon in the Greek, even if they are on different lines and so do not exactly correspond.

To make this search more accurate, we can refine it by specifying that all words must be found within the same paragraph rather than the same article. To do that, click on the magnifying glass on the left side of the search field. At the bottom of the menu that appears, choose Paragraph.

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Then hit Enter to re-run the search.

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Here you can see that the false hits have been removed, and we now have only 49 hits rather than 52.

In this post, we've gone a little further in our use of the MT-LXX Parallel to see how you can tweak the display of the search results and how you can specify that the Hebrew and Greek words must appear on the same line. In my next post of this series, we'll go even further.


 

Jul 9, 2013 David Lang

Using the MT-LXX Parallel

When you display the Hebrew Bible and Greek Septuagint in parallel panes of a Search tab, the parallel verses are displayed side-by-side, but it is not immediately apparent which Hebrew word a particular Greek word is translating. For example, in Genesis 1:1, the Greek word ouranon corresponds to the Hebrew word Shamaim. I can see that by dragging my cursor over each word in the Hebrew and Greek to find out which words mean “heaven,” but other than that, there is no easy way to see the relationships between these two texts.

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That’s where a specialized Reference Tool called the MT-LXX Parallel comes in. This tool, developed by renowned Hebrew and Septuagint scholars, places each word or phrase of the Masoretic Hebrew text in parallel with the corresponding Greek words from the Septuagint.

One obvious use of the MT-LXX Parallel is to place it in parallel with the text of the Hebrew Bible and Greek Septuagint. As a reference tool, the MT-LXX Parallel will automatically scroll along with the biblical text, enabling you to see word-by-word connections for each verse.

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For example, if we scroll to Genesis 1:26, we can see that the Hebrew word for "image" (tselem) is translated by the Greek eikon (from which we get the word "icon").

To search the MT-LXX Parallel, we need to view it in a separate Tool tab. As with other Tools, the MT-LXX Parallel is divided into different fields of content. To search for all occurrences of the Hebrew word tselem, our natural impulse would be to set the search field to Hebrew and enter that lexical form.

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Since the Hebrew text of the MT-LXX is not grammatically tagged, our search only finds the 27 instances when tselem appears in that exact form. When we search for tselem in a tagged Hebrew Bible, we get 34 hits because every inflection of tselem is found.

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Fortunately, we can overcome this limitation of the MT-LXX Parallel by piggy-backing on the tagging of the Hebrew Bible. We do this through the use of an advanced search command called the MERGE command. By merging the MT-LXX Parallel with the tab containing the BHS-W4, the results of my lexical search of the Hebrew Bible are reflected in the MT/LXX. Notice that now the MT/LXX displays 36 occurrences of tselem. (The extra two occurrences are notes or reconstructions in the MT-LXX database.)

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Using the MERGE command in this way makes for some very powerful searches. For example, suppose I want to find every place where the LXX translates the Hebrew word tselem by some form of the word eikon. To do this, I’ll open a new Search tab containing the Septuagint, and I’ll do a search for eikon. This search finds 40 hits.

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To see which of these occurrences of eikon correspond to the Hebrew word tselem, I’ll go back to my MT-LXX Parallel, add an AND command, and then add a second MERGE command. This time, I’ll Merge with the tab containing the LXX.

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This search turns up 52 hits, and I can see that both the Hebrew word tselem and the Greek word eikon are highlighted. Divide the number of hits by two, and we end up with around 26 places where tselem is translated as eikon.

I hope you can see from this brief example how powerful the MT-LXX Parallel database is. In my next post, I'll examine these results in more detail and offer a few more tips for using this powerful resource.


 

May 3, 2010 Helen Brown

Watching the News

It's been a busy weekend at Accordance, but unless you watch our news announcements carefully, you might have missed these items:

Pick A Product Coupon: 25% off any one item. The PICKAP coupon code lets our sales staff know that you want to take 25% off the highest priced item in the order. The coupon is good throughout May and can be used twice. This is your best opportunity to get that commentary set or other major item on your wish list. (Temporary sale prices and other discounts cannot be combined with this offer.)

Chafer-cover Chafer-Theology:  the entire original 8 volume set by Louis Sperry Chafer was just released for download for only $139.

Dr. Lewis S. Chafer (1871-1952) was the founding president of Dallas Theological Seminary and its first professor of Systematic Theology. When he completed his massive eight volume Systematic Theology after more than ten years of labor, he produced the first Calvinist, dispensational, pre-millennial and pre-tribulational theology. Chafer’s warm spirituality, his love of the Bible and his devotion to a simple Christian life permeate its pages. The strength of the work lies not in its interaction with scholarly sources, but in its many citations of Scripture and its organization of it into classic theological categories.

Gott-Gen Göttingen Septuagint: It's taken a little longer than we hoped, but the first volume of the series is now available for download. This is the definitive critical edition of the LXX. We plan to release further volumes until we catch up with the ongoing publication of the print edition.

Our modules of the Göttingen LXX include the fully tagged Greek text together with the complete apparatus, available nowhere else in convenient electronic form, a must for every Old Testament scholar.

Genesis is available for $100, or you can order the Pentateuch set for $400.

Please see the Latest News page for full announcements of these items and any others you may have missed.

 


 

Jul 28, 2009 Helen Brown

Importing Bibles Challenge

Kevin P. Edgecomb has a new post on his Biblicalia Blog about his experiences trying to import the NETS (New English Translation of the Septuagint) into BibleWorks. He ends with this challenge:

So, Accordance users, do you have problems like these? Do these problems exist in Accordance? Can Accordance do the following?:

1.) Present a version in its own proper order within the normal context of searching and display
2.) Include subverses as full verses for searching, etc
3.) Accurately align all verses and subverses without mysterious glitches
4.) Utilize any system of book names one wishes

At this point, I’m seriously considering a complete switch. I could go Mac, and then have Accordance. I’ve heard it’s a zillion times better, anyway. My recent experience has pretty well pushed me over the edge. If anyone has any experience with importing and mapping Bible versions in Accordance, I’d love to hear from you.

Of course the NETS is available in Accordance and it does correctly line up with any other Bible version. It does appear in its own order of books and verses, and, if you uncheck English Book Names in Set Text display, it uses its native book names. Subverses should appear correctly within a verse, but we are not set up to specifically align them.

 

NETS Parallels

 

Now, we agree with Kevin that the alignment of the Hebrew Bible with the Septuagint and any of its translations is always very difficult. All this takes a lot of behind-the-scenes work by the programmers and the developers who prepare the text. These features are not available for User Bible imports, which basically have to conform to the KJV verses and are intended for simple texts. So, it would not be any easier for a user to import NETS into Accordance, but there is no need to do so.

Kevin invites our users to go over and comment on his blog, so, please, step up to the mark.

And, by the way, Kevin, you can run Accordance on your PC, it just isn't as pretty as running it on a Mac.