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Sorting out ὅτι Clauses


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#1 Marco V. Fabbri

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Posted 15 November 2011 - 05:30 AM

In Greek, some conjunctions can be used with different kinds of dependent Clauses. This is the case with ὅτι, that is found in Complement, Subject, Appositive, or Adjunct Clauses. An Adjunct Clause introduced by ὅτι is usually a causal Clause.

Thanks to the syntax add-on, we can easily sort out the ὅτι Clauses according to their syntactical function.
We will need to prepare four different searches.

We will search first for Adjunct Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will proceed as follows:

  • Open a new Search Text, choose GNT-T as search text, and choose to search for Words (not Verses) within every Chapter or Book (not Verse, etc)
  • Open a new Greek Construct (Command-2), that will be automatically linked to the Search Text
  • In the Greek Construct window, drag the LEX element and drop it into the first column
  • When prompted, type or select ὅτι, then click OK or press Return
  • Drag the element CLAUSE and drop it into the second column
  • When prompted, choose Dependent clause only, then Adjunct, then click OK or press Return
  • Drag the element WITHIN and drop it between the LEX element and the Adjun. DEPENDENT element
  • When prompted, enter 2 (so as to allow for an intervening word), then click OK or press Return
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

Attached File  Causal hOTI.PNG   181.59KB   97 downloads

We have found Clauses introduced by ὅτι that are Adjunct to the Predicate of the superordinate Clause.

Second, we will search for Complement Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will modify the existing search as follows:

  • In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the element Adjun. DEPENDENT
  • When prompted, choose Complement, then click OK or press Return
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

Attached File  Complement hOTI.PNG   201.4KB   96 downloads

We have found Clauses introduced by ὅτι that are complement of the Predicate of the superordinate Clause.

Third, we will search for Subject Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will modify the existing search as follows:

  • In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the element Compl. DEPENDENT
  • When prompted, choose Subject, then click OK or press Return
  • Double-click on the element WITHIN and change 2 to 1 (so as to avoid intervening words)
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

Attached File  Subject hOTI 1.PNG   264.06KB   61 downloads

If we examine the results, we will see that we have found some Clauses introduced by ὅτι that are Subject of the superordinate Clause.

For instance, in Matthew 4:6 the ὅτι Clause is the Subject of the passive Verb γέγραπται. What is written? ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται: “That he will command to His angels etc.” Mark 2:1, 4:38, 7:6; 11:17, etc., fall into the same pattern.

We also have false hits, as in Matthew 17:10; 26:54 or in Mark 9:11. The reason is that we searched for ὅτι followed by a Subject Clause, and the result shows this. In the three false hits that I have quoted, the search didn't take into account that the Subject Clause is actually the Subject of the Verb δεῖ that follows.

This means that the results of any search like this needs to be interpreted. We still need to assess our search results, in order to see if some unexpected factor contributed to them.

The syntax add-on provides another tool to do this: the tool is the Syntax tree. To open it, we will need to click on the symbol in the upped right corner, as in the picture:

Attached File  Subject hOTI 2.PNG   101.19KB   65 downloads

With the Syntax tree pane open, we can now turn to examine Matthew 17:10, as in the picture:

Attached File  Subject hOTI 3.PNG   256.27KB   68 downloads

If we look at the end of the verse, we notice a speech Clause, that contains what the scribes say. In that Clause, δεῖ is the Predicate, and the subordinate Clause Ἠλίαν… ἐλθεῖν acts as Subject. So, this is the dependent Subject Clause that was found. Even if it follows ὅτι, it doesn’t directly depend on ὅτι.
Matthew 26:54 and Mark 9:11 are similar.

The search may be refined, of course. Even so, it provides the means to speeds up the process of finding the syntactic pattern that we are looking for: it is a heuristic tool.

Fourth, we will search for Appositive Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will modify the existing search as follows:

  • In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the element Subj. DEPENDENT
  • When prompted, choose Appositive, then click OK or press Return
  • Double-click on the element WITHIN and change 2 to 1 (so as to avoid intervening words)
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

Attached File  Appositive hOTI.PNG   257.55KB   51 downloads

If we examine the results, we will see the Clause ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται acts as Apposition to the Subject Phrase τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν (on this Subject Phrase, see the post on Participles in Subject Clauses).

  • Michael J. Bolesta and RobertCRobinson like this
Marco Valerio Fabbri
P. Università della S. Croce
Rome, Italy

#2 mikes

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Posted 15 November 2011 - 10:19 AM

I am unable to view the images.

#3 Marco V. Fabbri

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Posted 18 November 2011 - 06:21 AM

I am unable to view the images.


Is it possible that we have not signed in? If I try to view the images without signing in, I get a message that says that it is required.
Marco Valerio Fabbri
P. Università della S. Croce
Rome, Italy

#4 JonathanHuber

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Posted 18 November 2011 - 07:25 AM

I am unable to view the images.


I have the same problem and I am signed in.

2012 non-retina Macbook Pro

OS 10.9.5 Mavericks


#5 Marco V. Fabbri

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Posted 19 November 2011 - 03:49 AM

I am confused, as other people tells me that they can see the attached images. They are png screenshots.
Jonathan, can you see the attachments to the other Guides?
Marco Valerio Fabbri
P. Università della S. Croce
Rome, Italy

#6 Steve King

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Posted 19 November 2011 - 05:33 AM

Hi Marco

I too am unable to see your screenshots. I have just tried looking at your earlier posts on this board and I get a permissions error on those as well. I am currently signed in.

I cannot be 100% sure but I think I was able to view them on your earlier posts when they first came out although I can't now.

Regards

Steve

PS. Just trying to help out here - I don't need to see the screenshots - I get confused as soon as someone mentions indicative :blink:

Steve King Running Accordance 11.0.2 on:

Mac 10.9.5 (Mavericks), mid-2010 Macbook Pro, 4Gb RAM

IOS 8 (iPad 2 and iPhone 5)


#7 JonathanHuber

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Posted 19 November 2011 - 07:14 AM

I am confused, as other people tells me that they can see the attached images. They are png screenshots.
Jonathan, can you see the attachments to the other Guides?


I cannot see the images in any of the syntax guides. The images do not appear as thumbnails but rather as links, and clicking on those links takes me to a page reporting a permissions error. I am able to see png files you've added in other threads, such as this one. http://www.accordanc...h=1

Perhaps we need a forum admin to help us identify this problem?

Jonathan

2012 non-retina Macbook Pro

OS 10.9.5 Mavericks


#8 Marco V. Fabbri

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Posted 19 November 2011 - 07:22 AM

All right, I am checking right now with the administrator. Thank you for bringing out the problem and helping to define it.
Marco Valerio Fabbri
P. Università della S. Croce
Rome, Italy

#9 Joel Brown

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Posted 19 November 2011 - 09:46 AM

As an administrator, I've looked into it and there was a missing permission for downloading from this forum. Try it now.
Joel Brown

By day: Consultant for Oaktree
By night: Freelance Trombonist and Private Instructor

#10 JonathanHuber

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Posted 19 November 2011 - 10:05 AM

As an administrator, I've looked into it and there was a missing permission for downloading from this forum. Try it now.


Fixed! Thanks, Joel.

2012 non-retina Macbook Pro

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#11 A. Smith

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Posted 18 January 2013 - 10:34 PM

I've been away from the forum for a LONG time. I'm so glad this section is up and running. Thanks!


Anthony Smith
Southwest Christian Church
Ocala, Florida

#12 RobertCRobinson

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Posted 01 August 2013 - 07:58 PM

In Greek, some conjunctions can be used with different kinds of dependent Clauses. This is the case with ὅτι, that is found in Complement, Subject, Appositive, or Adjunct Clauses. An Adjunct Clause introduced by ὅτι is usually a causal Clause.

Thanks to the syntax add-on, we can easily sort out the ὅτι Clauses according to their syntactical function.
We will need to prepare four different searches.

We will search first for Adjunct Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will proceed as follows:

 

  • Open a new Search Text, choose GNT-T as search text, and choose to search for Words (not Verses) within every Chapter or Book (not Verse, etc)
  • Open a new Greek Construct (Command-2), that will be automatically linked to the Search Text
  • In the Greek Construct window, drag the LEX element and drop it into the first column
  • When prompted, type or select ὅτι, then click OK or press Return
  • Drag the element CLAUSE and drop it into the second column
  • When prompted, choose Dependent clause only, then Adjunct, then click OK or press Return
  • Drag the element WITHIN and drop it between the LEX element and the Adjun. DEPENDENT element
  • When prompted, enter 2 (so as to allow for an intervening word), then click OK or press Return
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

attachicon.gifCausal hOTI.PNG

We have found Clauses introduced by ὅτι that are Adjunct to the Predicate of the superordinate Clause.

Second, we will search for Complement Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will modify the existing search as follows:

  • In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the element Adjun. DEPENDENT
  • When prompted, choose Complement, then click OK or press Return
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

attachicon.gifComplement hOTI.PNG

We have found Clauses introduced by ὅτι that are complement of the Predicate of the superordinate Clause.

Third, we will search for Subject Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will modify the existing search as follows:

  • In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the element Compl. DEPENDENT
  • When prompted, choose Subject, then click OK or press Return
  • Double-click on the element WITHIN and change 2 to 1 (so as to avoid intervening words)
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

attachicon.gifSubject hOTI 1.PNG

If we examine the results, we will see that we have found some Clauses introduced by ὅτι that are Subject of the superordinate Clause.

For instance, in Matthew 4:6 the ὅτι Clause is the Subject of the passive Verb γέγραπται. What is written? ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται: “That he will command to His angels etc.” Mark 2:1, 4:38, 7:6; 11:17, etc., fall into the same pattern.

We also have false hits, as in Matthew 17:10; 26:54 or in Mark 9:11. The reason is that we searched for ὅτι followed by a Subject Clause, and the result shows this. In the three false hits that I have quoted, the search didn't take into account that the Subject Clause is actually the Subject of the Verb δεῖ that follows.

This means that the results of any search like this needs to be interpreted. We still need to assess our search results, in order to see if some unexpected factor contributed to them.

The syntax add-on provides another tool to do this: the tool is the Syntax tree. To open it, we will need to click on the symbol in the upped right corner, as in the picture:

attachicon.gifSubject hOTI 2.PNG

With the Syntax tree pane open, we can now turn to examine Matthew 17:10, as in the picture:

attachicon.gifSubject hOTI 3.PNG

If we look at the end of the verse, we notice a speech Clause, that contains what the scribes say. In that Clause, δεῖ is the Predicate, and the subordinate Clause Ἠλίαν… ἐλθεῖν acts as Subject. So, this is the dependent Subject Clause that was found. Even if it follows ὅτι, it doesn’t directly depend on ὅτι.
Matthew 26:54 and Mark 9:11 are similar.

The search may be refined, of course. Even so, it provides the means to speeds up the process of finding the syntactic pattern that we are looking for: it is a heuristic tool.

Fourth, we will search for Appositive Clauses introduced by ὅτι. We will modify the existing search as follows:

  • In the Greek Construct window, double-click on the element Subj. DEPENDENT
  • When prompted, choose Appositive, then click OK or press Return
  • Double-click on the element WITHIN and change 2 to 1 (so as to avoid intervening words)
  • Press Return or click on the Search button to perform the search

The results will look like this:

attachicon.gifAppositive hOTI.PNG

If we examine the results, we will see the Clause ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται acts as Apposition to the Subject Phrase τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν (on this Subject Phrase, see the post on Participles in Subject Clauses).


#13 Marco V. Fabbri

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Posted 23 November 2013 - 06:24 AM

This has changed in the November 2013 update.

 

I have now moved the conjunctions inside the subordinate Clause boundary.

 

The reasons are several:

  1. in this way, the Greek Syntax works in the same way as the Hebrew Syntax;
  2. searches were sometimes counter-intuitive; now they are more intuitive
  3. the old way, under some conditions, some expected results were not shown. Now they are

Marco Valerio Fabbri
P. Università della S. Croce
Rome, Italy




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