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Thoughts on Abridged NIDNTT


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#1 JonathanHuber

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Posted 07 October 2011 - 04:30 PM

Can anyone comment on the differences between the full NIDNTT set and the cheaper abridged version? What was taken out?

Thanks,
Jonathan

#2 Helen Brown

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Posted 07 October 2011 - 04:48 PM

The organization is different. NIDNTT groups words of similar meaning together under a set of English words, NIDNTT-A lists each Greek word alphabetically. The content has been edited down somewhat as you can see in the below examples, and the bibiography is omitted.

NIDNTT

Good, Beautiful, Kind
Just as the concept evil can have different, distinct shades of meaning, the ideas contained in the concept good are expressed in NT Gk. by three word-groups, each with its own separate emphasis. agathos is used generally for what is good and useful, especially moral goodness in relation to God who is perfect. kalos can be used as a synonym, but in comparison with the ethical and religious emphasis of agathos, it stresses more the aesthetic aspect, and stands for beautiful, fine, free from defects. When applied to acts, it means noble, praiseworthy. For Plato the kalon is the realization of the agathon in the sphere of objects. chrēstos expresses the material usefulness of things with regard to their goodness, pleasantness and softness.

καλός G2819 (kalos), good, beautiful, noble; καλοποιέω G2818 (kalopoieō), do good.

CL 1 kalos (cf. Sanskrit kalya, healthy, strong, excellent) has as its basic meaning: organically fit, suitable, useful, sound, e.g. a suitable harbour (Homer); a healthy body (Plato); pure, genuine gold (Theognis); an unblemished sacrifice (Xenophon). Aesthetic judgments were very early attached to the concept of the fit and organically sound. kalos then also came to mean the aesthetically beautiful. Finally the concept was broadened again and gained the additional sense of morally good (Sophocles, Pindar and others). Thus, in the course of the history of Greek thought, the concept kalos achieved an inclusive meaning, linked with taxis (order) and symmetria (symmetry). In this context kalos came to mean “the total state of soundness, health, wholeness and order, whether in external appearance or internal disposition. For the Gk., then, the term applies particularly to the world of the divine” (W. Grundmann, kalos TDNT III 537).
2 A Greek ideal for life and education was expressed by the phrase kalos kai agathos which showed the aristocracy how it should live. An education based on the arts and exemplary behaviour moulded the nobleman in the ethics of his class. In Homer it is an expression of ancient European aristocratic pride among the leading tribes of Greece. For them inherited position had to be earned afresh by meeting high and inexorable demands. It had to be embraced along with a heroic bearing, self-discipline, and the will to be fair in all dealings between noble and commoner. Thus kalos and agathos were united in the single concept kalos kagathos (cf. W. Grundmann, TDNT III 538 f.).
Socrates and Plato raised this chivalrous class-ethic to the position of the general goal of all Gk. educational principles. In their writings the kalos kagathos is a man who is respectful and fair, thoughtful and discreet, moderate and capable in the way he conducts his life, a man for whom everything is in order (Grg. 470e, 518a — c; Rep. 3, 425d).
3 Finally Plato raised the concept kalos in the sphere of philosophy and religion to the status of an eternal idea by linking it with the experience of erōs (love). The unremitting longing and striving of the soul is directed towards the kalon. erōs is the force which drives men to seek and to recognize the kalon in this world (Symp. 204, 211 ff.; cf. Phdr. 249 ff.). That which links the divine and earthly realms and which gives life meaning and an eternal dimension is the kalon. Earthly beauty partakes of the eternal archetype of the beautiful. This religious significance which Plato’s doctrine of ideas imparted to the concept kalos was retained throughout the development of Hellenistic Christian thought. For Plotinus the kalon was what flowed forth, the equivalent of the idea (Enneads, 1, 6; cf. 6; 7). Ecstasy, as a glimpse of the eternal beauty, is the highest experience. It is granted only to beautiful souls who grow to maturity on earth through the virtues of self-discipline, fearlessness and freedom from attachment.
For Augustine, too, and for Thomas Aquinas true beauty is at one with the eternally true and good, and is only found with God; everything on earth is merely a reflection of the divine beauty (cf. Augustine, De Civ. 19, 3; 22, 19; De Pulchro; Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, 1 Q. 5, 4; 1∞ 2ae Q. 27, 1).

OT The meaning which the Greeks gave to kalos, which became decisive for Christian antiquity and via Christendom for the development of thought throughout the western world, scarcely penetrated the world of the OT or the NT. In the LXX kalos is used as the translation of yāp̄eh (e.g. Gen. 12:14; 29:17; 39:6; 41:2) and denotes a beautiful external appearance. But kalos occurs most frequently beside ἀγαθός and χρηστός as a translation of ṭôḇ. It means good, not so much in the sense of an ethical evaluation as in that of pleasant, enjoyable, beneficial. kalos, as opposed to agathos, is what is pleasing to Yahweh, what he likes or what gives him joy, whereas agathos suggests more the application of an ethical standard. But it is impossible to draw any clear-cut lines of demarcation for the basic meaning of the Heb. ṭôḇ, for it contains both aspects. Only in one place does the use of kala give rise to what is probably the expression of an aesthetic judgment (Gen. 1:31). Perhaps one should translate even here kai idou kala lian as “and behold [it was] completely successful” (cf. MT: “and behold it was very good”). It means fair or beautiful in, e.g., Gen. 6:6; 12:14; 2 Sam. 11:2; 13:1. Otherwise it is striking that there is no room in the OT for the Greek ideal of beauty as a motive for living and for education. Everything is directed towards the will of God which is expressed in the law. Any ideal of self-perfection is thus excluded. Hence kalos is frequently used as a synonym for ἀγαθός (cf. Mal 2:17; Mic. 6:8; Isa. 1:17; and also Num. 24:1; Deut. 6:18; 12:28; 2 Chr. 14:2 [MT 14:1]; and later Prov. 3:4). In the story of the fall kalos is used in the description of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen. 2:17; cf. v. 18; 3:5 f., 22). The LXX translates the Heb. ṭôḇ wārāʿ by kalon kai ponēron, “good and evil” (Adam; Evil; Knowledge; Sin).

NT It is striking that in the NT kalos is used almost as frequently as agathos to denote good, and this happens consistently throughout the NT writings (agathos 104 times; kalos 99).
1 In the Synoptic Gospels, John the Baptist demanded from those who would enter the fellowship of the kingdom good fruit (karpon kalon, Matt. 3:10 par. Lk. 3:9). Jesus made the same demand (Matt. 7:17 ff.; 12:33; cf. Lk. 6:43 ff.). The parables speak of good seed (kalon sperma), good men (kaloi) who are caught in the net (Matt. 13:24, 27, 37, 38), and good ground (kalē gē) in which the word flourishes (Matt. 13:23 par. Mk. 4:20 Lk. 8:15). It is in this sense that Jesus calls men to good works (kala erga, Matt. 5:16). Once again kalos is used almost synonymously with agathos. The fine or good works which Jesus expects are summed up in the maxim of Matt. 25:40, “As you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me.” They remain connected with the works of love which served as directives for the practice of mercy in Judaism (cf. Isa. 58:6-7, where they are already listed). At the same time the kala erga are removed from all thought of striving after reward (cf. Lk. 10:30 ff., the parable of the Good Samaritan; Reward).
In the story of the anointing at Bethany (Mk. 14:6) Jesus, aware of his imminent passion, placed the deed of love which had been done to him higher than the almsgiving of his disciples. The opportunity for this act — the anticipatory anointing of his body and thus the affirmation by his disciples of his path of suffering — only offered itself in this historical moment.
2 In Jn. Jesus is the good shepherd (ho poimēn ho kalos). Here kalos is used to bring into focus his office as shepherd in all its uniqueness, in contrast to contemporary false claims to the office of shepherd and to the shepherd-gods of antiquity (Jn. 10:11, 14). He is the good, the lawful shepherd, because he opposes the wolf at the risk and at the cost of his life. ( [Ed.] This may be seen against the OT background of Yahweh as shepherd [Gen. 49:24; Pss. 23; 78:52 f.]. The patriarchs were shepherds. Ungodly kings were denounced as wicked shepherds [1 Ki. 22:17; Jer. 10:21; 23:1 f.]. Ezek. 34:5 f. pictures Israel as a flock without a shepherd and Yahweh as the true shepherd [vv. 11-16]. Cf. C. K. Barrett, JTS 48, 1947, 163 f.; R. E. Brown, The Gospel according to John, I, 1966, 397 f.)
Jn. 10:31 speaks of Jesus’ many good works (polla erga kala) in the context of a controversy with the Jews. It is not the works that are in dispute, but his messianic claim, the evidence for which is in these very works.
3 Paul employs kalos as a synonym for ἀγαθός; it does not convey anything which could not be expressed by agathos (cf. Rom. 7:18, 21; 2 Cor. 13:7; Gal. 6:9; 1 Cor. 7:1, 8, 26).
4 On the other hand, the preference for kalos in the Pastorals is striking (cf. 1 Tim. 5:10, 25; 6:18; Tit. 2:7, 14; 3:8, 14; 1 Tim. 3:1). Military imagery, in particular, is linked with the concept kalos (cf. 1 Tim. 6:12; 2 Tim. 2:3; 1 Tim. 1:18; 2 Tim. 4:7). But in other contexts kalos is used remarkably often instead of agathos (cf. 1 Tim. 1:8; 3:7; 3:13; 4:6; 6:19; 2 Tim. 1:14; 1 Tim. 4:4). The reason for this usage here is clear. The word was a favourite in popular Hellenistic speech and it expressed a Hellenistic sense of values. It is used here in order to express the more clearly for the second generation of Christians what characterizes discipleship of Christ. In any case, both OT and NT right on into the Catholic Epistles (Jas. 2:7; 3:13; 4:17; 1 Pet. 2:12; 4:10) demonstrate a use of the term kalos which, without undergoing any change of meaning, is freely employed to express Biblical ideas in the context of Gk. language and thought.



NIDNTT-A

G2819 | καλός
καλός (kalos), good, beautiful, noble (G2819); καλοποιέω (kalopoieō), do good (G2818); καλῶς (kalōs), well, beautifully (G2822).

CL & OT 1. (a) In cl. Gk. the basic meaning of kalos is organically fit, suitable, useful, sound: e.g., a suitable harbor, a healthy body, pure gold, an unblemished sacrifice. Aesthetic judgments became attached to this meaning, so that kalos also came to mean the beautiful. Finally the concept was broadened again to mean morally good. Thus, the concept kalos achieved an inclusive meaning, denoting a state of soundness, wholeness, and order, both externally and internally.
(B) A Gk. ideal for life and education was expressed by the phrase kalos kai agathos, which showed the aristocracy how to live. An education based on the arts and exemplary behavior molded the nobleman in the ethics of his class. Socrates and Plato raised this chivalrous class [p. 287] ethic to be a general goal of all Gk. education. In their writings the kalos kagathos (as it came to be written) is someone who is respectful and fair, thoughtful and discreet, moderate and capable in the way he conducts his life.
© Finally, Plato raised the concept kalos in the sphere of philosophy and religion to the status of an eternal idea by linking it with the experience of erōs (love). The unremitting longing and striving of the soul is directed towards the kalon; erōs is the force that drives people to seek and recognize the kalon in this world. Earthly beauty partakes of the eternal archetype of the beautiful. The kalon thus links the divine and earthly realms and gives life meaning and an eternal dimension. This religious significance of kalos was retained in later Christian thought. True beauty is at one with the eternally true and good and is only found with God; everything on earth is a mere reflection of that divine beauty.
2. The meaning the Gks. gave to kalos scarcely penetrated the world of the OT or NT. In the LXX kalos occurs most often beside agathos and chrēstos as a translation of ṭôb. It means good — not so much in the sense of an ethical evaluation as in that which is pleasant, enjoyable, beneficial. kalos is what is pleasing to Yahweh, what he likes, or what gives him joy. Note esp. the use of kala as an expression of God’s aesthetic judgment in Gen. 1:31. kalos means fair or beautiful in, e.g., 6:2; 12:14; 2 Sam. 11:2; 13:1.
It is striking that the OT shows no interest in the Gk. ideal of beauty as a motive for living and for education. Everything is directed toward God’s will, which is expressed in the law; any ideal of self-perfection is thus excluded. Hence, kalos is frequently used as a synonym for agathos (cf. Isa. 1:17; Mic. 6:8; Mal 2:17; also Num. 24:1; Deut. 6:18; 12:28; 2 Chr. 14:2; Prov. 3:4). In the story of the fall, kalos is used in the description of “the tree of the knowledge of good and evil” (Gen. 2:9, 17).

NT 1. In the NT kalos is used 100x (almost the same as agathos, 102x; → G19) to denote good. In the Synoptic Gospels, John the Baptist demanded from those who wanted to enter the fellowship of the kingdom “good fruit” (Matt. 3:10; Lk. 3:9). Jesus made the same demand (Matt. 7:17–19; 12:33; cf. Lk. 6:43–45). His parables speak of “good seed” (Matt. 13:24, 27, 38), “good fish” (i.e., people) who are caught in the net (13:48), and “good soil” in which the Word flourishes (13:23; Mk. 4:20; Lk. 8:15). It is in this sense that Jesus calls us to “good deeds” (Matt. 5:16), which are summed up in the maxim of 25:40: “Whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me.” They remain connected with the works of love that served as directives for the practice of mercy in Jud. (cf. Isa. 58:6–7). At the same time, from good deeds is removed all thought of striving after reward (cf. Lk. 10:30–37).
In the story of the anointing at Bethany (Mk. 14:6), Jesus, aware of his imminent passion, places this “beautiful thing” done to him higher than his disciples’ almsgiving. The opportunity for this act — the anticipatory anointing of his body and thus the affirmation of his path of suffering — only offered itself in this historical moment.
2. In Jn. Jesus is “the good [kalos] shepherd.” Here kalos brings into focus his office as shepherd in all its uniqueness, in contrast to contemporary false claims to the office of shepherd (Jn. 10:11, 14). He is the good, the lawful, shepherd, because he opposes the wolf at the risk and cost of his own life. This pattern of Jesus must be seen against the OT background of Yahweh as shepherd (Gen. 49:24; Ps. 23; → poimēn, G4478). In Jn. 10:32 Jesus speaks of his “many great [kalos] miracles” in the context of a controversy with the Jews. It is not the miracles themselves that are in dispute, but his messianic claim, the evidence for which is in these works.
3. In general Paul uses kalos as a synonym for agathos; it does not convey anything that could not be expressed by agathos (cf. Rom. 7:18, 21; 1 Cor. 7:1; 2 Cor. 13:7; Gal. 6:9). By contrast, the preference for kalos in the Pastorals is striking (cf., e.g., 1 Tim. 3:1; 5:10, 25; 6:18; Tit. 2:7, 14; 3:8, 14), esp. in military imagery (cf. 1 Tim. 1:18; 6:12; 2 Tim. 2:3; 4:7). The reason for this usage may be because kalos was a favorite in popular Hel. speech and expressed a Hel. sense of values. Thus, it helped express more clearly for a second generation of Christians what is involved in Christian discipleship. kalos continues in the General Letters to describe desirable Christian conduct (e.g., Heb. 5:14; 10:24; Jas. 2:7; 3:13; 4:17; 1 Pet. 2:12; 4:10).
4. The adv. kalōs occurs 37x in the NT. It often bears the meaning to say something right or correctly (e.g., of the Scriptures, Matt. 15:7; Acts 28:25; of people, Mk. 12:32; Jn. 4:17). It can also be used to denote correct or appropriate conduct (e.g., 1 Tim. 3:4, 12–13; Heb. 13:18; Jas. 2:8).

See also agathos, good (G19); chrēstos, pleasant, kind, good (G5982).
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#3 JonathanHuber

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Posted 08 October 2011 - 08:07 AM

Thanks for providing the examples! This was helpful.

Jonathan




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