Editors use a variety of brackets in Bibles and Texts to indicate material that is missing, reconstructed, or whose authenticity is in doubt. This podcast surveys the different uses of brackets in Accordance’s most commonly-used texts—and how to adjust for them in searches and statistical analyses.
Check out more episodes of the Lighting the Lamp podcast!
When we released the Nestle-Aland 28th edition of the Greek New Testament and apparatus (NA28) five years ago, we included everything given to us in electronic form by the publisher, but there were a few items not available to us at the time such as Eusebius’ Letter to Carpian (Epistula ad Carpianum) and the accompanying Canon Tables. Today, we are releasing a major update to the apparatus of the NA28 that not only includes the above mentioned items, but also makes a few other changes. This is a free update for those who have already purchased the NA28 and apparatus.
In the updated apparatus (which can be viewed by itself or in parallel with the NA28 text), we have added Eusebius’ Letter to Carpian and textual notes as well as Eusebius’ Canon Tables I-X. There is a new search field, “Canon Tables” for searching specifically in the content of the latter addition.
Previously, we had a separate module dedicated to the NA28 cross references. Now, however, the cross references are integrated into the apparatus itself. Yes, that means that if you already own the NA28, you can delete the cross references module after updating unless you frequently use them in other contexts. The main text of the NA28 apparatus is now divided into three sections: (1) textual notes apparatus, (2) cross references, and (3) Eusebian Canon numbers.
We still have to add Appendix III, Loci Citati Vel Allegati, to make the apparatus complete, but this section will be incorporated at a future date, also for no additional cost to previous purchasers.
Accordance Bible Software is excited to announce the immediate release of The Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House Cambridge (THGNT). Ours is the first release of this new edition of the Greek New Testament available with morphological tagging. The THGNT comes with an apparatus module that can be read in parallel with the THGNT text or other editions of the Greek New Testament.
Dirk Jongkind serves as the primary editor of the THGNT, with associate editor, Peter J. Williams, and assistant editors Peter M. Head and Patrick James. The THGNT is co-published by Tyndale House, Cambridge and Crossway.
The THGNT began as a project to revise the Tragelles edition of the Greek New Testament, which initially served as a basis of the Westcott-Hort edition, the pre-cursor of modern eclectic texts from Nestle-Aland and United Bible Societies. However, as stated in the Introduction, the “revision of Tregelles has ended up being more thoroughgoing than we had expected, such that this is now a completely new edition, rather than a light revision.”
Departing from current practice as found in the NA/UBS editions of the Greek New Testament, the editors of the THGNT required that all readings (with some exceptions in Revelation) receive witness from at least two manuscripts, with one from the fifth century or earlier. This method results in a shift from modern emphasis on the earliest reading (sometimes only based on one manuscript in the NA/UBS texts) to a “best reading.”
There are a few other unique features to the THGNT. The editors allowed spelling variations of the manuscripts to remain in most places. Punctuation marks are kept to a minimum (“comma, high point, full stop, and question mark”), and there are purposefully no sigla in the Greek text indicating variant readings in the apparatus.
Perhaps one of the most interesting features of the THGNT is the re-ordering of New Testament books based on the order generally preferred in the Early Church. The THGNT arranges the writings of the New Testament in the following way: Gospels, Acts, Catholic Epistles, Pauline writings (including Hebrews), and Revelation. This arrangement of the New Testament books will appear as described in the previous sentence when the THGNT is used as a primary search text; however, if the THGNT is placed in parallel with another New Testament, it will follow the order of that primary search text.
The Accordance edition of the THGNT also includes morphological tagging of the text. This feature allows the reader to see morphological and parsing information on the Greek words of the THGNT as well as providing crossover highlighting with other Greek texts, as well as translations of the New Testament that include Strong’s or Goodrick-Kohlenberger Key Numbering.
An abbreviated description of the features of the THGNT can be found in the Preface of the Apparatus module. Much more detailed information, including the basis for some decisions made in this edition, is found in the Introduction. Also, an official website from Tyndale House, Cambridge details the history and many of the distinctive readings and unique features of the THGNT in a blog series begun a year ago by editors Dirk Jongkind and Peter J. Williams.
Tip: Use the compare text feature in Accordance 12 to discover differences between the THGNT and other editions of the Greek New Testament.
Bill Mounce examines the Tyndale House Greek New Testament in this video. (See how he uses the compare feature of Accordance to examine differences between the Tyndale House Greek New Testament and the NA28 GNT.)
And don't miss two recent reviews:
- Brian Davidson: "Tyndale House GNT in Accordance"
- Joel Watts: "Accordance Bible's Greek New Testament from Tyndale House"
The Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge
Regular Price $39.90
In 2018 I plan to read the Greek Gospels in a Year. Will you join me?
I’ve created a reading plan, which divides the Gospels into three months each, with readings scheduled for Monday through Friday. This leaves weekends open to catch up, review, or take a break.
Since study of grammar and vocabulary makes for good "cross-training" (as Prof. Rob Plummer calls it), there is also a weekly reading suggestion for an accompanying Greek textbook: Rod Decker’s Reading Koine Greek.
The plan also includes suggested passages for lectio divina each week, an ancient way of reading Scripture that goes back to at least the Middle Ages. Lectio divina is Latin for “divine reading” or “holy reading."
Finally, the plan concludes with 16 tips for Scripture memory, for readers who want to add that component in 2018.
You can download the Greek Gospels in a Year reading plan here as an Accordance User Tool (or here as a PDF). The User Tool is a free module I created that integrates seamlessly with your Greek New Testament and Decker's grammar in Accordance, if you own them.
Click/tap the image above for a closer look at Abram K-J's reading plan as an Accordance User Tool, as well as associated Accordance resources.
Would you like to join me and others? Leave a comment at Accordance Bible Software’s “Greek in a Year” forum.
Here's to a good year in the Greek Gospels!
Abram Kielsmeier-Jones is Pastor of Union Congregational Church in Gloucester, Massachusetts. He writes at Words on the Word.
Dr. Bill Mounce, President of biblicaltraining.org and author of Basics of Biblical Greek Grammar and Workbook, has been an enthusiastic Accordance user since the early days! In this video recorded at the 2016 ETS meeting in San Antonio, Dr. Mounce describes the specific new feature that has him most excited about Accordance 12.
This podcast picks up where Basic Greek Searches ends. It covers searching for Greek tags, using Search in, and adding more sophisticated Search commands. It also gives an overview of Searching and Amplifying to Greek Tools, and using Research for Greek language searches. Join Dr. J for this in-depth look at what Accordance offers those with a working knowledge of Greek.
See more episodes of Lighting the Lamp on our Podcast Page!
If you’ve invested the time to learn Greek, Accordance is the Bible Software for you! We have a host of Greek texts and resources—and an amazing set of search tools. In this podcast Dr. J covers the basic kinds of Greek searches, modifying those searches with search commands and symbols, and how to type in Greek.
See more episodes of Lighting the Lamp on our Podcast Page!
When I teach or preach the Bible in church settings, I tend to avoid making too much of a distinction between original language texts and English translations. I’ve listened to plenty of preachers who like to show off their knowledge of Greek or Hebrew as if to occasionally remind their congregations of how much they know. On the other hand, in discussing this issue with a church member once, she told me, “If we don’t hear about the original languages from you, where will we hear it?” I suppose there has to be balance in such things.
Kenneth Wuest, former professor at New Testament Greek at the Moody Bible Institute in the mid-twentieth century and one of the New American Standard Bible translators, was absolutely gifted at being able to communicate the nuances of Koine Greek to audiences who had no knowledge of the ancient language. And Wuest was able to do so without talking down to his audience or creating mistrust for their English translations. In spite of his very popular teaching ministry to pastors in training, Wuest’s greatest ongoing contribution to the church—and specifically to the laity in the church—is his four-volume Word Studies from the Greek New Testament with Expanded NT.
Wuest’s Word Studies were published well over a half century ago, but they continue to reach those who hunger to know the New Testament better, even if they haven’t had the opportunity to study biblical languages. Wuest had the remarkable ability to discuss the Greek language, clearly and thoughtfully, to those who have never studied Greek. And in doing so, Wuest continues his teaching ministry long after his passing.
The first two volumes of Word Studies presents a running exposition on selected books from the New Testament: Mark, Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, Hebrews, 1-2 Timothy, Titus, 1-2 Peter, 1-3 John, and Jude. If you’ve ever read A. T. Robertson’s Word Pictures in the Greek New Testament, Wuest’s Word Studies are comparable, but Wuest may be slightly more accessible for the non-specialist.
The third volume is a collection of five previously published works containing essays that include word studies, the meaning of particular Greek phrases, as well as theological studies. There are over 160 of these essays all together, aimed at the serious student of the Bible who has never formally studied Greek.
Wuest bases his Greek expositions on the Nestle edition of the Greek New Testament that was current at his time of writing. When distinguishing the Greek text from the English, he primarily interacts with the King James Version, which was the Bible mostly used by English readers in the mid-twentieth century. However, Word Studies may be placed in parallel with any text or translation in Accordance.
The fourth volume is the well-known New Testament: An Expanded Translation by Wuest that attempts to follow the word order of the Greek New Testament as closely as possible. That doesn’t mean Wuest’s translation is yet another literal translation as he chose to use as many words as possible to properly communicate the Greek text into English.
Click on the image above for a larger view of Wuest's
Word Studies from the Greek New Testament.
The Accordance edition of Kenneth Wuest’s Word Studies from the Greek New Testament comes in two separate modules. One contains the first three volumes together; and as mentioned earlier, these can be placed in parallel with the biblical text to act as a commentary. The second module contains Wuest’s Expanded Translation, so that it may be used in parallel as well.
Although Wuest was writing for the person who had never studied original languages, his insights into the Greek New Testament are valuable for the scholar as well. His understandable communication style and years of experience in the classroom make him a teacher across many levels of study.
I can still remember my first semester of elementary Greek in seminary years ago. About halfway through the course, most of us were a bit overwhelmed. So, one of my classmates raised his hand and asked our instructor how long he thought it would take for us to “master” New Testament Greek. Without even hesitating, he shot back, “There’s always something more to learn when it comes to Greek.”
When I first saw the title of Murray J. Harris’ book Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament, I remembered my Greek instructor’s words. There always seems to be something to explore at a deeper level when it comes to biblical languages. However, that doesn’t mean that such explorations are always all that interesting. Fortunately, Murray Harris, professor of New Testament Exegesis and Theology at Trinity Evangelical School in Deerfield, Illinois, has written a work on Greek prepositions that is engaging from the first chapter. Really.
Even any first-semester student knows that propositions in Greek can be tricky. Recognizing this, Harris writes,
This volume is offered to the reader in the hope that it may encourage close study of the Greek text of the New Testament, since interpreting the text grammatically — including giving attention to the nuances of prepositions — is the necessary prelude to understanding it theologically [p. 15].
Good translation comes from a combination of study, experience and perhaps a bit of common sense. How can prepositions affect exegesis and theology? Consider this example given by Harris on p. 41:
In the last clause of the Lord’s Prayer (Mt 6:13b), not ἐκ but ἀπό follows ῥῦσαι. In the NT ῥύεσθαι ἐκ denotes deliverance from nonpersonal evil (7x; note esp. 2Pe 2:9, ἐκ πειρασμοῦ, never personal enemies, while (elsewhere) ἀπό with ῥύεσθαι is twice used with persons (Ro 15:31; 2Th 3:2) and once with a nonpersonal object (2Ti 4:18). In Mt 13:19, 38 and probably 5:37, as also in Jn 17:15, ὁ πονηρός refers to “the evil one” (= the devil/Satan). If τοῦ πονηροῦ in Mt 6:13 referred to “evil,” we might have expected ἀπὸ παντὸς πονηροῦ (“from all/every kind of evil”; cf. πᾶν πονηρόν in Mt 5:11). Cf. 2Ti 4:18, ῥύσεταί με ὁ κύριος ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου πονηροῦ. The probability, then, is that τοῦ πονηροῦ means “the evil one” rather than “evil.”
If, like me, you first memorized the Lord’s Prayer from the King James Version, you quickly see how a proper understanding of prepositions makes a big difference in how one understands, translates, and even recites ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.
In Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament, Harris devotes an entire chapter to each of the 17 “proper” prepositions found in New Testament Greek with lesser but adequate attention given to the 42 “improper” prepositions. Thus, this work serves as both a reference as well as a book offered for further study of Greek. Although I believe this book will be best appreciated by those who have studied at least a second year of Greek, there’s nothing to prevent someone who has completed only a first semester from gaining insights from it as well.
Click on the image above for a larger view of
Harris' Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament
The Accordance Team has closely analyzed the text of Harris’ Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament and have tagged the content according to the following fields: Titles, Greek Titles, English Content, Scripture, Greek Content, Transliteration, Manuscripts, Captions, and Page Numbers. Such detailed analysis will aid the Accordance user in finding the exact content needed both quickly and efficiently.
Prepositions and Theology in the GNT
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“Blessed is the one who reads…and blessed are those who HEAR and keep what is written…" (Revelation 1:3).
Coinciding with the release of Accordance 11.1, we are pleased to announce the release of the Audio Greek New Testament. Designed to run in parallel with any New Testament text, the Audio Greek New Testament provides a professionally spoken Erasmian reading of the UBS4/NA27 text by Dr. John Schwandt.
The Greek New Testament Audio requires Accordance 11.1 and is available now.