The starter package will give you all you need to begin with.... you can see which word is responsible for given transliteration.But if you are wanting to start learning to read greek and hebrew the Original Languages Collection is a collection that will give you all you need. Two lexical dictionaries I have particularly found useful are THEOLOGICAL WORDBOOK OF THE OLD TESTAMENT and THEOLOGICAL DICTIONARY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (LITTLE KITTEL) I would urge you to consider these as a valuable addition to aid you in your studies. They are not included with Original Languages or Essential, but they are very helpful. See a sample from both below.
183 אָשַׁר (ʾāshar) to go (straight), walk.
183a † אֶשֶׁר (ʾesher) , אָשָׁר (ʾāshār) happiness, blessedness.
183b † אֹשֶׁר (ʾōsher) happiness.
183c † אֲשׁוּר (ʾăshûr), אָשׁוּר (ʾăshûr) step, going.
183d † אֲשֻׁר (ʾăshūr) step, going.
183e † אָשֵׁר (ʾāshēr) Asher.
183f אֲשֻׁרִים (ʾăshūrı̂m) boxwood.
183g תְּאַשּׁוּר (tᵉʾashshûr) boxtree.
183h אֲשֵׁרָה (ʾăshērâ), אֲשֵׁירָה (ʾăshêrâ) Ashera.
The verb occurs in the Qal only in Prov 9:6, “go/walk in the way of understanding.” In the Piel it is used eleven times with several nuances of which the most prominent is “to bless, called blessed”: Gen 30:13; Mal 3:12, 15; Job 29:11; Ps 72:17; Prov 31:28; Song 6:9; similarly in two cases in the Pual, Ps 41:2 [H 3]; Prov 3:18. The relationship, if any, between Qal “to go” and Piel “to bless” is not apparent. Two derivatives each come from the meaning “bless,” and “to walk.”
There are two verbs in Hebrew meaning “to bless.” One is בָּרַךְ and the other אָשַׁר. Can any differences between them be tabulated? For one thing בָּרַךְ is used by God when he “blesses” somebody. But there is no instance where אָשַׁר is ever on God’s lips. When one “blesses” God the verb is בָּרַךְ, never אָשַׁר. One suggestion to explain this sharp distinction, i.e. that אָשַׁר is reserved for man, is that אָשַׁר is a word of envious desire, “to be envied with desire is the man who trusts in the Lord.” God is not man and therefore there are no grounds for aspiring to his state even in a wishful way. Similarly God does not envy man, never desires something man is or has, which he does not have, but would like to have. Therefore God never pronounces man “blessed” (אַשְׁרֵי) (Janzen). It should also be pointed out that when בָּרַךְ is used the initiative comes from God. God can bestow his blessing even when man doesn’t deserve it. On the other hand, to be blessed (אַשְׁרֵי), man has to do something. Finally, בָּרַךְ is a benediction, אָשַׁר more of a congratulation. The former is rendered by εὐλογητός in the LXX and the latter by μακάριος.
To be “blessed” (אַשְׁרֵי), man has to do something. Usually this is something positive. A “blessed” man, for example, is one who trusts in God without equivocation: Ps 2:12; 34:8 [H 9]; 40:4 [H 5]; 84:5 [H 6]; 84:12 [H 13]; 146:5; Prov 16:20. A “blessed” man is one who comes under the authority of God’s revelation: his Torah, Ps 119:1; 1:2; Prov 29:18; his word, 16:20; his commandment, Ps 112:1; his testimony, 119:2; his way, 128:1; Prov 8:32. The man who is beneficent to the poor is blessed (Ps 41:1 [H 2]); Prov 14:21). Note the negative approach of Ps 1, “blessed is the man who does not.” He isolates himself and shuns the company of certain people, the ungodly. The psalm ends by noting that it is precisely these ungodly who will in the end be isolated. They will not stand in the judgment. They will be conspicuous by their absence for they will perish.
אֶשֶׁר. Happiness, bliss. Always occurs as אַשְׁרֵי, usually defined as the masculine plural construct of the noun אֶשֶׁר (which form is nonexistent in the Hebrew Bible), “O the happiness(es) of” Perhaps “bliss” would be a better translation. It is used forty-four times in the OT, twenty-six of which are in the Psalter and eight in Prov. It appears in the Pentateuch only in Deut 33:29, in the historical books only in 1 Kgs 10:8 (2 Chr 9:7), and in the prophets in Isa 30:18; 32:20; 56:2.
אֹשֶׁר. Happiness, a hapax legomenon, used in Gen 30:13, “What happiness is mine.”
אֲשׁוּר, אָשׁוּר. Step, going, feet, the latter form occurring in Job 31:7 and Ps 17:11.
Both words are confined to Ps (six times), Job (two times), and Prov (once). Dahood (see bibliography) has argued for the existence of the word in Eccl 7:26, “The feet of her are dragnets” (אֲשֶׁר > ʾăshûrē).
It should be observed that in the six Ps passages the noun is often used in parallel with a part of the body. In Ps 17:5 it is parallel with פַּעַם “foot”; in 37:31 with לֵב “heart”; in 40:2 [H 3] with רֶגֶל “foot” and again in 73:2; and finally in Job 31:7, here in conjunction with both לֵב “heart” and עַיִן “eye.” All this lends credence to the possibility that אֲשׁוּר also refers to some part of the body, feet, or legs.
In Scripture the word is used metaphorically, meaning something like “lifestyle.” It may emphasize the believer’s fidelity to God’s way: Ps 17:5; 44:18 [H 19]; 73:2; Job 31:7; Prov 14:15. The word may also be used in a context affirming God’s faithfulness in helping one to keep in his way: Ps 40:2 [H 3]; 37:31.
אֲשֶׁר. Asher, Jacob’s second son by Zilpah, the handmaid of Leah. Chronologically he is Jacob’s eighth-born son. The name is to be related to the verb אָשַׁר in the Piel meaning of “to bless,” the “happy, fortunate one,” akin to the name Felix in the New Testament.
The specific etymology is found in Gen 30:13; “And Leah said, what fortune (בְּאָשְׁרִי, ‘happy am I’ in KJV) for the daughters will call me blessed (אִשְּׁרוּנִי), and she called his name Asher (אָשֵׁר).” Albright has discovered a related word, albeit feminine, analogous to Asher in a list of Egyptian slaves from the eighteenth century B.C. It appears there as ʾsh-ra. Further Pentateuchal references to Asher may be found in the blessing of Jacob (49:20) and in the blessing of Moses (Deut 33:24–26). The former passage underscores the fertility of the land as does the latter.
In the land partition section of Joshua the territory assigned to the tribe Asher comes third from the end (Josh 19:24–31) followed only by Naphtali and Dan. It was alloted territory in northwest Palestine, not far from the Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon. Biblical Israel does not appear to be homogeneous. Its systems of twelve tribes embraced populations with contrasting ways of life. Asher, along with Zebulun and Dan, were navigational. As such, they had more in common with the Phoenicians and the Philistines than they did with the inland Hebrews who were landlubbers. Their likenesses to each other would be akin to those of a man from Kansas and a man from Maine.
The Asher tribe never produced any religious or political leader throughout her history, not even during the days of the frequent appearances of the charismatic judges. Deborah even has to reprimand them for their unwillingness to participate in the fight against the Canaanites. They preferred to stay in more familiar surroundings, the seacoast, rather than to commit themselves to battling the enemy and making themselves vulnerable (and not only have the Asherites been guilty of this!).
אֲשֵׁרָה. Asherah. Both a Canaanite goddess and a wooden cult object in the OT. The word is translated “groves” in the KJV presumably on the basis of the LXX ἄλσος and nemus in the Vulgate. Before examining the OT itself we turn to the famous Ugaritic texts from Ras Shamra. It is they which tell us who Asherah was. Her name is a feminine participle of the Ugaritic verb ʾtr (Heb אָשַׁר “to go”). One of her titles is rabbatu aṯiratu yammi, “Lady Atirat of the Sea,” or “the lady who treads on the sea.” She is the consort or wife of the divine El, and as such enjoys the title qaniyatu elima, “progenitress/creatress of the gods.” Her most famous son was Baal. A characteristic of all mythological literatures is “in the beginning there were two.” In the Bible, however, we meet “in the beginning there was one.” The issue is not simply arithmetic. The fact that one does not read about Mrs. God in Gen 1 and 2 may be one of the Bible’s ways of stating that only God finds fulfillment in himself.
In one of the famous mythological texts from Ugarit, the Kret epic, it is predicted to Kret of his bride that “she will bear you seven sons/and an eighth (daughter) ‘Octavia’/she will bear you the lad Yasib/who will suck the milk of Asherah.” Hence, (divine) life is guaranteed and bequeathed.
To turn to the OT, there is no actual description of an Asherah there. Was it a tree, a pole, some kind of tree symbol, an image? It apparently was not a natural object but one that was constructed by man, an artifact. It was “made”: 1 Kgs 16:33; 2 Kgs 17:16; 21:3; it was “set up”: 17:10; 2 Chr 33:19; Isa 27:9; it was “built”: 1 Kgs 14:23. Only once is the verb “to plant” used, Deut 16:21, and here the meaning is “implant.” The conclusion then is that in the OT Asherah stands for the Canaanite goddess represented by a carved wooden image implanted into the ground, usually adjacent to an altar dedicated to the god Baal and located on a hilltop under a leafy tree (Patai).
It is in the period of the divided monarchy that the Asherah cult flourished both in Israel and Judah, though its existence before is documented by the command in Ex 34:13, the prohibition of Deut 16:21, and the incident at the threshold of Gideon’s life of service to God, Jud 6:25ff. Rehoboam’s career marks the beginning of this in Judah (1 Kgs 14:23). In the north the cult received its greatest momentum from the incentive of Jezebel who was responsible for the presence of “four hundred prophets of Asherah” (18:19). Even a reform-minded king such as Asa (15:13) or later Hezekiah (2 Kgs 18:4) was unable to liquidate the movement. It was knocked down, but not knocked out. There was an almost inevitable resurrection even in the wake of reform. Compare son Manasseh’s policy (2 Kgs 21:7, even to the point of placing the image in the temple) on the heels of father Hezekiah’s reform (18:4). Apostasy and idolatry just behind revival! What one generation attempts to get rid of a subsequent generation may trot back in, however reprehensible it may be. All too frequently this has been the pattern in the human race.
Bibliography: אָשַׁר, אַשְׁרֵי: TDOT I, pp. 445–48. THAT I, pp. 257–60. Dahood, M., “Hebrew-Ugaritic Lexicography I,” Bib 44: 298. Hillers, D. R., “Delocutive Verbs in Hebrew,” JBL 86: 321–22. Kaser, W., “Beobachtungen zum altestamentlichen Makarismus,” ZAW 82: 225–250. Lipinski, E., “Macarismes et psaumes de congratulation,” RB 75: 321–67.
אָשֵׁר: Albright, W. F., “Northwest-Semitic Names in Light of Egyptian Slaves from the Eighteenth Century B.C.,” JAOS 74: 229. Witfall, W., “Asshur and Eber, or Asher and Heber?” ZAW 82: 110–13.
אֲשֵׁרָה: TDOT I, pp. 438–44. Albright, W. F., Yahweh And The Gods of Canaan, Doubleday, 1968, pp. 121–24. Barr, J., “Seeing the Wood For the Trees? An Enigmatic Ancient Translation,” JSS 13: 11–20. Patai, R., “The Goddess Asherah,” JNES 24: 37–52. Reed, W. L., The Asherah In The Old Testament, Texas Christian University, 1949.
TWOT, s.v. “אָשַׁר,” n.p.
μακάριος makários [blessed, happy], μακαρίζω makarízō [to consider blessed], μακαρισμός makarismós [blessing]
A. Greek Usage. makários is at first a poetic word and refers to the blessedness of the gods. Later it comes to be used for the freedom of the rich from normal cares and worries. The verb makarízō means “to extol as, or declare to be, blessed,” while makarismós means “extolling as blessed,” and is first used by Aristotle as a technical term for “beatitude” (macarism).
B. The Stylistic Form of the Beatitude. A set form develops in Greek to extol the good fortune that accrues to a person. Using makários (or trismakários), it takes on a gnomic quality, and is often found, e.g., on epitaphs. Themes are varied, e.g., material goods, children, a marriage partner, bachelorhood, riches, a good understanding, fame, righteousness, the release of death, and mystic initiation. Happy are those who enjoy such things. [F. HAUCK, IV, 362–64]
C. The LXX and Judaism. The main Hebrew term is ’ašrê, but the LXX extends the range by using makários for various other terms. The predicative makários is most common, with the content in a relative clause, participle, of hóti clause, makarízein as a finite verb is rare. In the OT macarisms always refer to persons, never to things or states. God is not called makários (though in the NT cf. 1 Tim. 1:11; 6:15). Blessedness is fullness of life and relates to such things as a wife, beauty, honor, wisdom, and piety. The OT contains many warnings against purely external judgment, so that the true blessedness is that of trust in God, forgiveness of sins, righteousness even in affliction, and final deliverance. Formal beatitudes are not common in Philo. For him God alone is truly blessed, and humans can know blessedness only as they share the divine nature in their bearing of earthly sorrows and their philosophical endeavors. Rabbinic Judaism, however, stays closer to the usage of the OT. [G. BERTRAM, IV, 364–67]
D. The Word Group in the NT.
1. The special feature in the NT is use of the term for the distinctive joy which comes through participation in the divine kingdom. The verb makarízō occurs only
twice, first in Lk. 1:48 for the blessing of the mother of the Messiah by all generations, and second in Jms. 5:11 with reference to those who endure. The noun makarismós occurs three times — in Gal. 4:15 for the blessing of receiving the gospel, and in Rom. 4:6, 9 for that of forgiveness of sins. makários is very common, usually in direct beatitudes. The reference is to persons, and the macarism, in the third person, consists of a predicative makários, then the person, and finally the reason in a subsidiary clause. Set in the context of eschatological salvation, the NT macarisms have great emotional force. Often there is a contrast with false happiness, but now all secular values are secondary to the one supreme good of the kingdom. Often, then, we find sacred paradoxes (Mt. 5:3ff.; Lk. 6:20ff.). God effects a reversal of all human values. True happiness is not for the rich and secure, but for the poor and oppressed who are rich only in pity, purity, and peace. Blessing is also for the persecuted, for those who hear the message of the kingdom (Mt. 13:16), for those who meet it with faith (Lk. 1:45), for those who make no false demands (Jn. 20:29), for those who watch (Lk. 12:37) and stand fast (Jms. 1:12), and for those who understand the words and acts of Jesus (Jn. 13:17). The mother of the Messiah is blessed (Lk. 11:27), but childless women are also blessed in an age of impending judgment (Lk. 23:29). Paul in Rom. 4:7-8 calls those who know forgiveness blessed, while in Rom. 14:22 he refers to the blessedness of those who see their way clearly in ethical decisions, and in 1 Cor. 7:40 he thinks widows who do not marry again are more blessed. Revelation contains seven macarisms (and fourteen woes). Five are pronounced authoritatively from heavenly lips (14:13; 16:15; 19:9; 22:7, 14) and refer to the blessedness of martyrs, of those who persevere, of those who are invited to the feast, of those who share in the first resurrection, and of those who may enter the holy city.
2. The secular concept of counting someone fortunate occurs in Acts 26:2 (Paul).
3. In 1 Tim. l:11; 6:15 makários describes the blessed transcendence of God. Eschatological hope belongs to this sphere, and may thus be called blessed in Tit. 2:13. [F. HAUCK, IV, 367–70]
TDNT (Abridged), s.v. “μακάριος μακαρίζω μακαρισμός,” 548-549.