Man ! I seriously don't search English texts enough apparently ! Various things I didn't realize or had forgotten - I'll have to do an English search crib sheet. Anyhow ...
To answer the simple question first, [key H09048]@-(listen, hear) gets me : 774 hits in 649 vss as a WORD search. As a FLEX search I get 358 hits in 287 vss. Neither includes Deut 6:4 which based on your note above "Note: the logic I want is: H09048 and (not *listen* AND not *hear*)" sounds correct. Now for the not so good : listen still occurs in compounds like "listen carefully", "listen in" and "listen closely". I would have expected that they would have been excluded.
Taking "listen carefully" as an example I can do [key H09048]@"listen carefully" and I get :
Gen. 27:8; Ex. 15:26; 23:22; Job. 13:17; 21:2; Ezek. 3:10
which all look correct. Cool. But [key H09048]@-"listen carefully" results in no hits at all, which doesn't make sense to me at all. If instead I try [key H09048]@-(listen, carefully) I can get rid of the hit for "listen carefully" but that seems a bad w/a for other reasons.
Now to wildcards. Adding the * before and after the words doesn't really do much. In FLEX I get two fewer hits (one vs) than without. It removes :
Gen. 27:6 Rebekah said to her son Jacob,a “Look, I overheard your father say to your brother Esau,
which makes sense when you think about it, but it shows there's not much that FLEX isn't already doing for you that the * adds.
The basic problem appears to be that exclusion of a word does not exclude translations including that word if they are more than one word.
In addition there is the inconsistency noted above that one can do [key H09048]@"listen carefully" but not [key H09048]@-"listen carefully".
As far as I can tell right now the only way to do that would be to find all the ways H09048 is translated, and compile a list of words to be excluded which must contain all words in multi-word translations. That, it would seem could get you close.
Ok, try a FLEX search for [key H09048]@-(listen, hear, careful, carefully, listener, close, closely, definitely, ever, expect, cause, to, be, of, in, let, make, surely)
I tried to optimize for the English stemmer but misjudged the stems/conjugates. But this is about close I think.
If I am still miles off let me know ....